Alan Turing is generally acknowledged to be the father of computer science . He was a British mathematician, logician, and computer scientist who is best known for his work decoding the German military’s Enigma code during World War II. He is also known for his contributions to the field of artificial intelligence. In addition to this, he is famous for the conception he had of a theoretical computing machine, which later became known as a Turing machine, and for the contributions he made to the creation of early computers. In the annals of computing and computer science, Alan Turing is universally regarded as one of the most pivotal figures to have ever lived.

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## early life and career

Alan Mathison Turing was born to Julius Mathison Turing and Ethel Sara Turing on June 23, 1912 in Maida Vale, London, England, in the United Kingdom. His mother was the daughter of a chief engineer in the Madras Presidency, and his father served in the Indian Civil Service. When Alan was only one year old, his parents moved back to England, and his mother was mostly responsible for his upbringing.

He shown an early aptitude for the study of mathematics and logic from an early age. He was hailed as a mathematical genius when he was a student at the Dorset boarding school, Sherborne School, where he received his education. It was in 1931 that he was awarded a scholarship to attend King’s College, Cambridge, and it was in 1934 that he graduated with a degree in mathematics, earning first-class honours.

After receiving his degree from Cambridge, Turing applied to become a fellow at King’s College so that he could continue his study of mathematics and logic there. He was successful in his application. Around this period, he also developed an interest in the work of the German mathematician David Hilbert, who had devised a formal framework for mathematics that came to be known as Hilbert’s Program. During this time, Hilbert’s Program had a major influence on him.

After being captivated by Hilbert’s Program, he started his work on the mathematical underpinnings of computer science. In 1936, he presented the idea of a theoretical computing machine in a paper titled “On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem.” In this publication, he established the notion of a computer that could answer any mathematical problem that could be written algorithmically.

This work is now seen as a significant milestone in the development of computer science, and Alan Turing’s theoretical machine serves as the foundation for today’s digital computers.

During World War II, Turing served as an employee of the British government at the Government Code and Cypher School at Bletchley Park. There, he was entrusted with deciphering the codes that were being used by the Nazi forces. The work that Turing did at Bletchley Park was kept under strict secrecy and was not revealed to the public for a good number of years.

Turing’s contributions to the war effort were instrumental in the Allied victory, and his work on the Enigma machine, which was a device used by the Germans to encrypt their communications, is considered to be one of his greatest achievements. Turing’s contributions to the war effort were instrumental in the Allied victory.

Following the war, Turing continued his research and development in the fields of artificial intelligence and computer technology. He designed and constructed the Automatic Computing Engine (ACE), which was one of the first electronic stored-program computers, and he came up with the concept of the Turing Test, which is a test to determine whether or not a machine can exhibit intelligent behaviour that is indistinguishable from that of a human.

Turing was also outspoken about his sexual orientation, which at the time was against the law in the United Kingdom. In 1952, he was found guilty of being a homosexual and was sentenced to chemical castration as a punishment. The conviction that Turing received had a disastrous effect on his life, and he took his own life in 1954, when he was 41 years old.

Turing made enormous contributions to the fields of computer science and mathematics, and his work is often credited with laying the groundwork for the modern digital era. His life and work continue to serve as a source of motivation for academics and scientists all over the globe, and his name is now inextricably linked to the evolution of computers and the field of computing science. In 2009, the then-Prime Minister Gordon Brown offered a public apology on behalf of the British government for the manner that Alan Turing was handled. In 2013, Queen Elizabeth II gave him a posthumous pardon after he had passed away.

## education

Alan Turing was a student of exceptional ability who excelled in the field of mathematics from an early age. He was hailed as a mathematical genius when he was a student at the Dorset boarding school, Sherborne School, where he received his education. It was in 1931 that he was awarded a scholarship to attend King’s College, Cambridge, and it was in 1934 that he graduated with a degree in mathematics, earning first-class honours.

After receiving his degree from Cambridge, Turing applied to become a fellow at King’s College so that he could continue his study of mathematics and logic there. He was successful in his application. Around this period, he also developed an interest in the work of the German mathematician David Hilbert, who had devised a formal framework for mathematics that came to be known as Hilbert’s Program. During this time, Hilbert’s Program had a major influence on him.

After being captivated by Hilbert’s Program, Turing started his work on the mathematical underpinnings of computer science. In 1936, he introduced the concept of a theoretical computing machine that could solve any mathematical problem that could be expressed algorithmically through the publication of a paper titled “On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem.”

The work that Turing did on computable numbers and the theoretical computing machine is now considered to be a landmark in the history of computer science. The modern digital computer is based on Turing’s theoretical machine.

## research

Here are some research topics related to Alan Turing:

### Turing Machine

Alan Turing first introduced the concept of a theoretical computing machine in his work “On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem” that was published in 1936. The Turing machine is also known as the theoretical computing machine. The notion of the Turing machine is credited with laying the groundwork for the creation of contemporary digital computers, making it an important milestone in the annals of the history of computer science.

The Turing machine is a mathematical model that consists of an indefinitely long tape that is split into cells, a read/write head that can read and write symbols on the tape, and a set of rules for the head to follow in order to read and write the symbols on the tape. The machine runs by reading a symbol that is already present on the tape. The machine then uses this symbol in conjunction with its current internal state to decide what symbol should be written on the tape, in what direction the head should move, and what internal state it should transition to.

The tape may be cut into cells, and each cell can store a symbol that belongs to one of a limited number of symbol sets. The read/write head can both read and write symbols onto the tape, and it can move one cell to the left or right at a time. The machine may be in one of a limited number of states internally, and it can transition from one state to another depending on the symbol that is being read from the tape. The set of states is limited in number.

The Turing machine is a great tool for theoretical computer science since it can calculate every function that can be performed algorithmically. The idea behind it serves as the foundation for the creation of programming languages, algorithms, and software, and it is able to imitate the functioning of any current digital computer.

The theoretical computing machine that he proposed sparked a revolution in the area of computer science and paved the way for the creation of the digital computer. The notion of the Turing machine continues to be an inspiration for study and development in the area of theoretical computer science, and the machine itself continues to be a significant instrument for the discipline.

### Codebreaking at Bletchley Park

During World War II, Bletchley Park served as the nerve centre for the British government’s efforts to crack enemy codes. Alan Turing and a number of other cryptanalysts put in a lot of hard work in this location in order to crack the German Enigma cypher, which was utilised to encrypt military communications.

During World War II, the German military made use of a sophisticated encryption device known as an Enigma machine. The user was given the ability to type in a message, which was then encrypted using a series of rotors that would scramble the letters in accordance with a particular key. The encrypted message could only be deciphered if both the sender and the receiver used the exact same key settings.

The significance of Alan Turing’s contribution to the deciphering of codes at Bletchley Park cannot be overstated. In order to accelerate the process of cracking the Enigma code, he devised a strategy that came to be known as the Bombe. This was a mechanical device that was used. The Bombe was able to simulate the workings of the Enigma machine, which drastically cut down the amount of time needed to decipher the codes.

Turing also developed the “Banburismus” technique, which is a method for determining the initial rotor settings of the Enigma machine. This method is named after the word “banburismus.” The cryptanalysts were able to swiftly discover the initial settings of the Enigma machine thanks to this approach, which made the job of cracking the codes far easier.

It is believed that the work done by him and his team at Bletchley Park shortened the duration of the war by several years and it is estimated that it saved the lives of a great number of people. The Allies were able to anticipate German military movements and gain a strategic advantage thanks to the information that was obtained through the codebreaking efforts that took place at Bletchley Park.

Although the work done at Bletchley Park was kept a secret for a number of years following the war, the contributions made by Turing and his colleagues have since been acknowledged as a significant achievement in the field of cryptography and computer science. This recognition comes despite the fact that the work done at Bletchley Park was kept a secret for a number of years following the war. Turing’s talent as a mathematician and cryptanalyst is shown by the fact that his creation of the Bombe and his participation in cracking the Enigma code had a significant and long-lasting influence on the fields of cryptography and computer science, respectively.

### The Enigma Machine

During World War II, the German military used a sophisticated electro-mechanical ciphering system known as the Enigma machine to protect the confidentiality of its communications. It was generally considered to be unbreakable and used extensively by the German military and intelligence agencies for the purpose of keeping their communications secure.

A keyboard, a group of rotors, and a lampboard were the three components that made up the Enigma machine. On the keyboard, the user would input their message, which would then be encrypted using a set of rotors that would jumble the characters in accordance with a certain key. After that, the encrypted message would be shown on the lampboard in the form of a string of lit characters.

To decipher the message, it was necessary to have knowledge of the original rotor settings as well as the daily key that was used to configure the rotors. The Germans altered the key settings on a daily basis, which made it difficult for the Allies to decipher the signals they were sending.

Alan Turing and his fellow Bletchley Park employees were instrumental in the successful deciphering of the Enigma code. They came up with a variety of strategies and machines to assist speed up the process of decrypting communications, and they used them to help speed things up. The Bombe, which used mathematical techniques to imitate the workings of the Enigma machine and drastically reduced the amount of time necessary to crack the code, became the most well-known of these computers.

It is thought that the work that Turing and his coworkers at Bletchley Park accomplished reduced the duration of the war by many years and saved the lives of countless individuals. It was a crucial turning point in the war when they were successful in cracking the Enigma code, which provided the Allies with a considerable edge in their struggle against the Germans.

It is now generally accepted that the Enigma machine was one of the most significant encryption technologies in the history of the world. The codebreakers at Bletchley Park faced an insurmountable obstacle in the shape of it due to its complexity and level of protection; nonetheless, the fact that they were successful in cracking the code has left an indelible mark on the fields of cryptography and computer science. It is clear that the Enigma machine has a significant place in the history of cryptography, since it continues to be studied and revered by both amateurs and professionals in the field.

### Turing Test

The Turing test is a test that determines whether or not a computer is capable of displaying intelligent behaviour that is comparable to, or indistinguishable from, that of a person. Alan Turing published a paper titled “Computing Machines and Intelligence” in 1950 in which he suggested the idea.

Throughout the evaluation process, a natural language discussion will take place between a human evaluator, a human participant, and a computer. The person doing the evaluating does not know whether or not one of the subjects is a machine or a person. If the evaluator is unable to differentiate between the two and assesses the machine’s replies as being indistinguishable from those of the human, then the machine is said to have passed the Turing test and is considered to have human-like intelligence.

The Turing test has been the subject of much discussion and criticism over the years. Some people argue that it is an inadequately broad measure of intelligence and that it is possible for a machine to pass the test without actually exhibiting true intelligence. Other people believe that the test should be scrapped entirely. Others argue that the test is still a useful measure of a machine’s ability to exhibit human-like behaviour and is an important step towards developing truly intelligent machines. They say this is because the test is based on the Turing test, which measures how closely a machine mimics human behaviour.

The Turing test has had a significant impact on the field of artificial intelligence and has led to the development of new methods and technologies for natural language processing and machine learning. The Turing test was developed by Alan Turing, who was a pioneer in the field of artificial intelligence. The exam has also spurred discussion over the nature of intellect as well as the meaning of what it means to be human.

In recent years, there have been considerable advancements in artificial intelligence, and some computers have come close to passing the Turing test. He was an American computer scientist who developed the test in 1950. Despite this, there is still a significant amount of work to be done before we can genuinely construct robots that are indistinguishable from humans in their capability to demonstrate intelligent behaviour.

### Morphogenesis

The biological process known as morphogenesis is the one via which living things acquire their distinctive shapes and forms. It is the process of coordinating the processes and movements that take place within cells, which ultimately results in the formation of tissues, organs, and other structures. In developmental biology, the study of morphogenesis is an important topic of research because it contributes to our understanding of how live creatures grow and evolve through time.

The process of morphogenesis is comprised of an intricate chain of cellular and molecular processes that are meticulously controlled. The process starts with the development of an egg that has been fertilised and includes all of the genetic information that is required to construct a full creature. As the egg divides and grows, its cells start to differentiate and specialise, ultimately leading to the formation of tissues and organs that are specialised to perform particular tasks.

During the process of morphogenesis, cells are able to interact with one another and communicate with one another via a number of signalling pathways. Exchange of chemical messages, physical pressures, and other elements that impact cell activity and movement may take place as a result of these interactions.

The cytoskeleton is a network of protein fibres that assists cells in maintaining their form and moving around. It is one of the most important components in the process of morphogenesis. The cytoskeleton is capable of producing forces that may both push and pull on cells, which assists in the formation of tissues and organs.

Morphogenesis is a very complicated process that is not yet understood in its entirety by scientists. The mechanisms that are involved in this process are still being studied by researchers so that they can gain a better understanding of how organisms develop and so that they can identify new targets for medical therapies.

Researchers have been able to examine morphogenesis in unprecedented depth in recent years because to advancements in technology and imaging. These studies have provided fresh insights into the underlying mechanisms that form living beings, which in turn has led to new discoveries. These new understandings have the potential to lead to new discoveries and innovations in fields such as developmental biology, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine.

These are just a few research topics related to Alan Turing. Depending on your field of study and research interests, there are many other areas to explore related to Turing’s life and work.

## death

Alan Turing passed away on June 7, 1954, when he was 41 years old. His death was judged a suicide and the cause of death was determined to be cyanide poisoning. The areas of mathematics, computer science, and artificial intelligence have suffered a terrible setback as a result of his passing.

When he passed away, Turing was in the process of working on a number of significant research projects, one of which was the development of a mathematical theory of morphogenesis. This theory was an attempt to explain how living organisms develop their shapes and structures. he was working on this theory at the time of his death. The study that was being done at the time would one day become a significant topic of research in the science of developmental biology.

The passing of Alan Turing came as a shock to his coworkers and acquaintances, and it wasn’t until later in his life that the full scope of his contributions to science and society were acknowledged. In 2009, the British Prime Minister Gordon Brown offered an official apology on behalf of the government of the United Kingdom for the way he was handled after his conviction for homosexuality. In the statement, He acknowledged that “he deserved so much more.”

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## FAQ

### Who is considered the father of computer science?

Alan Turing is often considered the father of computer science due to his work in developing the concept of a universal machine that could perform any calculation that could be performed by a human being. Turing is also known for his work on breaking the German Enigma code during World War II and his contributions to the development of artificial intelligence.

### What were Turing’s major contributions to computer science?

Turing made significant contributions to computer science in several areas, including cryptography, artificial intelligence, and the theory of computation. His most famous contribution is the concept of a “universal machine,” which laid the foundation for modern computing.

### What was the Turing test?

The Turing test was a proposed method for determining whether a machine could exhibit intelligent behavior that is indistinguishable from that of a human being. In the test, a human judge would interact with a computer program and a human being through a text interface, and would try to determine which was which.

### How has Turing’s work influenced modern computing?

Turing’s work on the theory of computation and the development of the universal machine laid the foundation for modern computing. His ideas have influenced the design of programming languages, computer architectures, and artificial intelligence systems. Turing’s legacy continues to be felt in the ongoing development of computing technology.

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